LIWC: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count

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Table 1: LIWC2007 Output Variable Information

Category Abbrev Examples Words in category Validity (judges) Alpha: Binary/raw
Linguistic Processes
Word count wc
words/sentence wps
Dictionary words dic
Words>6 letters sixltr
Total function words funct 464 .97/.40
   Total pronouns pronoun I, them, itself 116 .91/.38
      Personal pronouns ppron I, them, her 70 .88/.20
         1st pers singular i I, me, mine 12 .52 .62/.44
         1st pers plural we We, us, our 12 .66/.47
         2nd person you You, your, thou 20 .73/.34
         3rd pers singular shehe She, her, him 17 .75/.52
         3rd pers plural they They, their, they’d 10 .50/.36
      Impersonal pronouns ipron It, it’s, those 46 .78/.46
   Articles article A, an, the 3 .14/.14
   Common verbs verb Walk, went, see 383 .97/.42
   Auxiliary verbs auxverb Am, will, have 144 .91/.23
   Past tense past Went, ran, had 145 .79 .94/.75
   Present tense present Is, does, hear 169 .91/.74
   Future tense future Will, gonna 48 .75/.02
   Adverbs adverb Very, really, quickly 69 .84/.48
   Prepositions prep To, with, above 60 .88/.35
   Conjunctions conj And, but, whereas 28 .70/.21
   Negations negate No, not, never 57 .80/.28
   Quantifiers quant Few, many, much 89 .88/.12
   Numbers number Second, thousand 34 .87/.61
Swear words swear Damn, piss, fuck 53 .65/.48
Psychological Processes
Social processes social Mate, talk, they, child 455 .97/.59
   Family family Daughter, husband, aunt 64 .87 .81/.65
   Friends friend Buddy, friend, neighbor 37 .70 .53/.12
   Humans human Adult, baby, boy 61 .86/.26
Affective processes affect Happy, cried, abandon 915 .97/.36
   Positive emotion posemo Love, nice, sweet 406 .41 .97/.40
   Negative emotion negemo Hurt, ugly, nasty 499 .31 .97/.61
      Anxiety anx Worried, fearful, nervous 91 .38 .89/.33
      Anger anger Hate, kill, annoyed 184 .22 .92/.55
      Sadness sad Crying, grief, sad 101 .07 .91/.45
Cognitive processes cogmech cause, know, ought 730 .97/.37
   Insight insight think, know, consider 195 .94/.51
   Causation cause because, effect, hence 108 .44 .88/.26
   Discrepancy discrep should, would, could 76 .21 .80/.28
   Tentative tentat maybe, perhaps, guess 155 .87/.13
   Certainty certain always, never 83 .85/.29
   Inhibition inhib block, constrain, stop 111 .91/.20
   Inclusive incl And, with, include 18 .66/.32
   Exclusive excl But, without, exclude 17 .67/.47
Perceptual processes percept Observing, heard, feeling 273 .96/.43
   See see View, saw, seen 72 .90/.43
   Hear hear Listen, hearing 51 .89/.37
   Feel feel Feels, touch 75 .88/.26
Biological processes bio Eat, blood, pain 567 .53 .95/.53
   Body body Cheek, hands, spit 180 .93/.45
   Health health Clinic, flu, pill 236 .85/.38
   Sexual sexual Horny, love, incest 96 .69/.34
   Ingestion ingest Dish, eat, pizza 111 .86/.68
Relativity relativ Area, bend, exit, stop 638 .98/.51
   Motion motion Arrive, car, go 168 .96/.41
   Space space Down, in, thin 220 .96/.44
   Time time End, until, season 239 .94/.58
Personal Concerns
Work work Job, majors, xerox 327 .91/.69
Achievement achieve Earn, hero, win 186 .93/.37
Leisure leisure Cook, chat, movie 229 .88/.50
Home home Apartment, kitchen, family 93 .81/.57
Money money Audit, cash, owe 173 .90/.53
Religion relig Altar, church, mosque 159 .91/.53
Death death Bury, coffin, kill 62 .86/.40
Spoken categories
Assent assent Agree, OK, yes 30 .59/.41
Nonfluencies nonflu Er, hm, umm 8 .28/.23
Fillers filler Blah, Imean, youknow 9 .63/.18

Words in category refers to the number of different dictionary words that make up the variable category. Validity judges reflect the simple correlations between judges' ratings of the category with the LIWC variable (from Pennebaker & Francis, 1996). Alphas refer to the Cronbach alphas for the internal reliability of the specific words within each category. The binary alphas are computed on the occurrence/non-occurrence of each dictionary word whereas the raw or uncorrected alphas are based on the percentage of use of each of the category words within the texts. All alphas were computed on a sample of 2800 randomly selected text files from our language corpus.

The LIWC dictionary generally arranges categories hierachically. For example, all pronouns are included in the overarching category of function words. The category of pronouns is the sum of personal and impersonal pronouns. There are some exceptions to the hierarchy rules:

Common verbs are not included in the function word category. Similarly, common verbs (as opposed to auxiliary verbs) that are tagged by verb tense are included in the past, present, and future tense categories but not in the overall function word categories.

Social processes include a large group of words (originally used in LIWC2001) that denote social processes, including all non-first-person-singular personal pronouns as well as verbs that suggest human interaction (talking, sharing).

Perceptual processes include the entire dictionary of the Qualia category (which is a separate dictionary), which includes multiple sensory and perceptual dimensions associated with the five senses.

Back to Description of LIWC2007